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Types of Automotive Steering Mechanism

Steering Mechanism Types, Functions and Components It is proven that the smooth driving of a vehicle makes your drive safe and overwhelmed, which is the reason it is a requirement in the automotive industry. The more smoother feel of the wheel should be in direct contact with the steering system to make it easy and precise. Apart from that, it is important to note that the suspension plays a crucial role in an automotive industry. It requires a top quality steering system and components to ensure a top handling. Explore the following pages to find out how to steer and everything details.

The Function of A Steering System

When the turning of the wheel is completed and the vehicle reacts to the system. The Steering system is accountable for providing a very fluid route that includes a collection of parts known as the steering system. It sends the movement from the wheel on the shaft that controls the steering to turn the wheel to the left or right.

Automotive Steering Mechanism Types

Automotive steering is the foundation of every motor vehicle’s motion control. It is made up of all parts that are connected to joints, linkages and other components needed for the transmit the power directly from your engine into the wheels.

The steering system also controls the wheel angles in two axes to ensure directionality.

Two classic mechanisms employed to this day can be found in Rack & Pinion and Recirculating Ball Steering.

1. Rack & Pinion

Rack-and-pinion steering is by far the most popular type of motion control system found in cars small trucks, SUVs and cars.


  1. A Rack and Pinion Gear set is enclosed within an aluminum tube, with the ends of the rack protruding through the tube.
  2. A rod, also known as a tie rod, or axial rod connects at each side of the rack.
  3. A pinion gear is connected to the shaft of the steering.


If you turn the steering wheel, the gear spins which will move the rack. The tie rod joins the steering arm that is connected to the spindle.

The function of the Rack & Pinion gear is to convert the circular movement that the wheel of the vehicle into linear motion. It permits the reduction of gears which makes it easier to turn the wheels.

The two kinds of rack-and-pinion steering systems are:

  1. End of take-off
  2. Centre take-off

Variable Ratio Steering

A subtype of Rack & Pinion gear steering is Variable Ratio Steering.

The steering system is different in the amount of tooth pitch in the center than on the edges.

This makes the steering less responsive when the wheel is in close proximity to its center point.

When the wheel is turned to lock the wheels are more sensitive to the rotation of the steering wheel.

2. Re-circulating Ball / Steering Box

Recirculating Ball Steering is the most often used system of steering in vehicles with a lot of weight.

It is based upon Parallelogram linkage, where:

  1. It is believed that the Pitman & Idler arm remain in a parallel
  2. The mechanism absorbs hefty shock loads and vibrations.


  1. It is attached to the steering shaft with an end that is threaded at the end. The rod with threads is fixed, as opposed to other types of steering wheels, such as the Rack & Pinion type.
  2. The block is equipped with gear teeth that have been machined onto the block’s surface.
  3. The rod’s threads contain ball bearings.
  4. Ball bearings serve two main functions: To decrease friction and wear on the gear, and to fix the gear’s teeth to stop the gear to break contact with one another when the wheel turns.


  1. If the steering wheel is turned, the rod spins.
  2. As the wheel spins the block is moved.
  3. The block shifts another gear, which in turn is moved by an arm called the Pitman’s arm.
  4. The ball bearings inside the threads circulate throughout the gear as it spins.

Power Steering System

The power steering comes by adding additional parts and parts to the rack-and-pinion mechanism that simplifies it and makes it simple to operate. Most often, it is the pump and pressure tubes, the rotary controller, fluid lines and the piston hydraulic are the most common components of the motor steering unit.

The principal function for the pump’s job is move the fluid to the location in which it is needed. The rotating control valve acts as the one that ensures that the flow of the fluid takes place when the driver is driving the vehicle. Its piston of the hydraulic piston continues to move, based on the line of fluid that delivers the high-pressure liquid. The piston’s movement on the rack is beneficial for the driver, since it typically uses force to control the vehicle.

Speed Sensitive Steering

Power steering systems are typically described as speed-sensitive steering systems, in which the steering is heavily supported at a low speed, but is only assisted when traveling at an extremely fast speed. The car makers have the notion that there is an obligation to make massive steering inputs when maneuvering to park, but it’s not necessary if the speed of travel is extremely excessive.

The most modern technology for speed-sensitive power steering can be blamed for reducing mechanical or electrical aid as speeds of vehicles rises and gives it a more precise feel. This feature is slowly becoming more prevalent nowadays.

Parts of Steering System

1. General System Function

In the modern power steering system in modern power steering systems, it is the pump is utilised to supply the power steering fluid under tension to both the rack and pinion unit. If the driver is able to provide steering input via the steering wheel and the motor driving control valve is subjected to pressure from the other side of a piston that assists the driver turns the wheels

2. Power Steering Pump

Power steering pumps is utilised to rotate the accessory serpentine belt or drive belt in order to increase the pressure of the fluid on the higher end of the power steering hose , so that both sides of power steering can be controlled by the valve .

3. Steering Coupler

It is described as a device that permits it to allow the steering wheel move without being entangled with the column, as a result due to the fact that both the shaft that is the input shaft and the steering column aren’t considered to be in perfect alignment but are instead slightly off from one another.

4. Tie Rod Ends

This component is attached at the top of the steering rack, which is where the steering knuckles meet allowing the movement from the rack to translate into turning the movements of the front wheel. These are the parts that move horizontally to steer the input and pivot vertically and diagonally when the vehicle encounters rough terrain and the bounce of the wheels.

5. Power Steering Hoses

It is essential to be aware it is true that there exist two primary power steering hoses. One is the top side, while the other is lower. Both hoses can be found connected to the rack pinion using the aid of a threaded brass connection. The high-side hose is connected with the motor steering pump by an elongated brass fitting, whereas the lower hose slides are small pipes that are secured by the help of a clamp for the hose.

The high-end hose is carrying an engine-driven fluid under the pressure of the rack that is supplied with power assistance for the steering inputs, whereas the lower side of the hose is responsible for carrying lower pressure liquid back to the pump.


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